This is a fixed-text formatted version of a Jupyter notebook.

Fitting gammapy spectra with sherpa

Once we have exported the spectral files (PHA, ARF, RMF and BKG) in the OGIP format, it becomes possible to fit them later with gammapy or with any existing OGIP compliant tool such as XSpec or sherpa.

We show here how to do so with sherpa using the high-level user interface. For a general view on how to use stand-alone sherpa, see https://sherpa.readthedocs.io.

Load data stack

  • We first need to import the user interface and load the data with load_data.
  • One can load files one by one, or more simply load them all at once through a DataStack.
In [1]:
%matplotlib inline
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

import glob  # to list files
from os.path import expandvars
from sherpa.astro.datastack import DataStack
import sherpa.astro.datastack as sh
WARNING: imaging routines will not be available,
failed to import sherpa.image.ds9_backend due to
'RuntimeErr: DS9Win unusable: Could not find ds9 on your PATH'
WARNING: failed to import sherpa.astro.xspec; XSPEC models will not be available
In [2]:
import sherpa

sherpa.__version__
Out[2]:
'4.10.0'
In [3]:
ds = DataStack()
ANALYSIS_DIR = expandvars("$GAMMAPY_EXTRA/datasets/joint-crab/spectra/hess/")
filenames = glob.glob(ANALYSIS_DIR + "pha_obs*.fits")
for filename in filenames:
    sh.load_data(ds, filename)

# see what is stored
ds.show_stack()
read ARF file /Users/deil/work/code/gammapy-extra/datasets/joint-crab/spectra/hess/arf_obs23559.fits
read RMF file /Users/deil/work/code/gammapy-extra/datasets/joint-crab/spectra/hess/rmf_obs23559.fits
read background file /Users/deil/work/code/gammapy-extra/datasets/joint-crab/spectra/hess/bkg_obs23559.fits
read ARF file /Users/deil/work/code/gammapy-extra/datasets/joint-crab/spectra/hess/arf_obs23523.fits
read RMF file /Users/deil/work/code/gammapy-extra/datasets/joint-crab/spectra/hess/rmf_obs23523.fits
read background file /Users/deil/work/code/gammapy-extra/datasets/joint-crab/spectra/hess/bkg_obs23523.fits
read ARF file /Users/deil/work/code/gammapy-extra/datasets/joint-crab/spectra/hess/arf_obs23592.fits
read RMF file /Users/deil/work/code/gammapy-extra/datasets/joint-crab/spectra/hess/rmf_obs23592.fits
read background file /Users/deil/work/code/gammapy-extra/datasets/joint-crab/spectra/hess/bkg_obs23592.fits
read ARF file /Users/deil/work/code/gammapy-extra/datasets/joint-crab/spectra/hess/arf_obs23526.fits
read RMF file /Users/deil/work/code/gammapy-extra/datasets/joint-crab/spectra/hess/rmf_obs23526.fits
read background file /Users/deil/work/code/gammapy-extra/datasets/joint-crab/spectra/hess/bkg_obs23526.fits
1: /Users/deil/work/code/gammapy-extra/datasets/joint-crab/spectra/hess/pha_obs23559.fits OBS_ID: 23559 MJD_OBS: N/A
2: /Users/deil/work/code/gammapy-extra/datasets/joint-crab/spectra/hess/pha_obs23523.fits OBS_ID: 23523 MJD_OBS: N/A
3: /Users/deil/work/code/gammapy-extra/datasets/joint-crab/spectra/hess/pha_obs23592.fits OBS_ID: 23592 MJD_OBS: N/A
4: /Users/deil/work/code/gammapy-extra/datasets/joint-crab/spectra/hess/pha_obs23526.fits OBS_ID: 23526 MJD_OBS: N/A

Define source model

We can now use sherpa models. We need to remember that they were designed for X-ray astronomy and energy is written in keV.

Here we start with a simple PL.

In [4]:
# Define the source model
ds.set_source("powlaw1d.p1")

# Change reference energy of the model
p1.ref = 1e9  # 1 TeV = 1e9 keV
p1.gamma = 2.0
p1.ampl = 1e-20  # in cm**-2 s**-1 keV**-1

# View parameters
print(p1)
powlaw1d.p1
   Param        Type          Value          Min          Max      Units
   -----        ----          -----          ---          ---      -----
   p1.gamma     thawed            2          -10           10
   p1.ref       frozen        1e+09 -3.40282e+38  3.40282e+38
   p1.ampl      thawed        1e-20            0  3.40282e+38

Fit and error estimation

We need to set the correct statistic: WSTAT. We use functions set_stat to define the fit statistic, notice to set the energy range, and fit.

In [5]:
### Define the statistic
sh.set_stat("wstat")

### Define the fit range
ds.notice(0.6e9, 20e9)

### Do the fit
ds.fit()
Datasets              = 1, 2, 3, 4
Method                = levmar
Statistic             = wstat
Initial fit statistic = 641.651
Final fit statistic   = 135.43 at function evaluation 193
Data points           = 112
Degrees of freedom    = 110
Probability [Q-value] = 0.0503069
Reduced statistic     = 1.23118
Change in statistic   = 506.222
   p1.gamma       2.6166
   p1.ampl        4.34008e-20
WARNING: parameter value p1.ampl is at its minimum boundary 0.0

Results plot

Note that sherpa does not provide flux points. It also only provides plot for each individual spectrum.

In [6]:
sh.get_data_plot_prefs()["xlog"] = True
sh.get_data_plot_prefs()["ylog"] = True
ds.plot_fit()
WARNING: The displayed errorbars have been supplied with the data or calculated using chi2xspecvar; the errors are not used in fits with wstat
WARNING: The displayed errorbars have been supplied with the data or calculated using chi2xspecvar; the errors are not used in fits with wstat
WARNING: The displayed errorbars have been supplied with the data or calculated using chi2xspecvar; the errors are not used in fits with wstat
WARNING: The displayed errorbars have been supplied with the data or calculated using chi2xspecvar; the errors are not used in fits with wstat
../_images/notebooks_spectrum_fitting_with_sherpa_11_1.png
../_images/notebooks_spectrum_fitting_with_sherpa_11_2.png
../_images/notebooks_spectrum_fitting_with_sherpa_11_3.png
../_images/notebooks_spectrum_fitting_with_sherpa_11_4.png

Errors and confidence contours

We use conf and reg_proj functions.

In [7]:
# Compute confidence intervals
ds.conf()
p1.ampl lower bound:    -2.08218e-21
p1.gamma lower bound:   -0.0643092
p1.ampl upper bound:    2.14828e-21
p1.gamma upper bound:   0.0655594
Datasets              = 1, 2, 3, 4
Confidence Method     = confidence
Iterative Fit Method  = None
Fitting Method        = levmar
Statistic             = wstat
confidence 1-sigma (68.2689%) bounds:
   Param            Best-Fit  Lower Bound  Upper Bound
   -----            --------  -----------  -----------
   p1.gamma           2.6166   -0.0643092    0.0655594
   p1.ampl       4.34008e-20 -2.08218e-21  2.14828e-21
In [8]:
# Compute confidence contours for amplitude and index
sh.reg_unc(p1.gamma, p1.ampl)
../_images/notebooks_spectrum_fitting_with_sherpa_14_0.png

Exercises

  • Change the energy range of the fit to be only 2 to 10 TeV
  • Fit the built-in Sherpa exponential cutoff powerlaw model
  • Define your own spectral model class (e.g. powerlaw again to practice) and fit it