Data access and selection (DL3)#
IACT data is typically structured in “observations”, which define a given time interval during with the instrument response is considered stable.
gammapy.data currently contains the
as well as classes for IACT data and observation handling.
The main classes in Gammapy to access the DL3 data library are the
They are used to store and retrieve dynamically the datasets
relevant to any observation (event list in the form of an
IRFs see Instrument Response Functions (DL3) and other relevant information).
Once some observation selection has been selected, the user can build a list of observations:
Observations object, which will be used for the data reduction process.
Getting started with data#
You can use the
EventList class to load IACT gamma-ray event lists:
from gammapy.data import EventList filename = '$GAMMAPY_DATA/hess-dl3-dr1/data/hess_dl3_dr1_obs_id_023523.fits.gz' events = EventList.read(filename)
To load Fermi-LAT event lists, use the
from gammapy.data import EventList filename = "$GAMMAPY_DATA/fermi-3fhl-gc/fermi-3fhl-gc-events.fits.gz" events = EventList.read(filename)
The other main class in
gammapy.data is the
DataStore, which makes it easy
to load IACT data. E.g. an alternative way to load the events for observation ID 23523 is this:
from gammapy.data import DataStore data_store = DataStore.from_dir('$GAMMAPY_DATA/hess-dl3-dr1') events = data_store.obs(23523).events
The index tables#
A typical way to organize the files relevant to the data we are interested in are the index tables. There are two tables:
Observation index table: this table collects the information on each observation or run, with meta data about each of them, such as the pointing direction, the duration, the run ID…
HDU index table: this table provides, for each observation listed in the index table, the location of the corresponding data and instrument response files.
DataStore can then be created by providing each of these two tables in the same file with
from_file(), or instead by the directory where they can be found with
from_dir() as shown above.
More details on these tables and their content can be found in https://gamma-astro-data-formats.readthedocs.io/en/latest/data_storage/index.html.
Working with event lists#
To take a quick look at the events inside the list, one can use
from gammapy.data import EventList filename = '$GAMMAPY_DATA/hess-dl3-dr1/data/hess_dl3_dr1_obs_id_023523.fits.gz' events = EventList.read(filename) events.peek()
Events can be selected based on any of their properties, with dedicated functions existing for energy, time, offset from pointing position and the selection of events in a particular region of the sky.
import astropy.units as u from astropy.time import Time from gammapy.data import EventList filename = '$GAMMAPY_DATA/hess-dl3-dr1/data/hess_dl3_dr1_obs_id_023523.fits.gz' events = EventList.read(filename) # Select events based on energy selected_energy = events.select_energy([1*u.TeV, 1.2*u.TeV]) # Select events based on time t_start = Time(57185, format='mjd') t_stop = Time(57185.5, format='mjd') selected_time = events.select_time([t_start, t_stop]) # Select events based on offset selected_offset = events.select_offset([1*u.deg, 2*u.deg]) # Select events from a region in the sky selected_region = events.select_region("icrs;circle(86.3,22.01,3)") # Finally one can select events based on any other of the columns of the `EventList.table` selected_id = events.select_parameter('EVENT_ID', (5407363826067,5407363826070))
Combining event lists and GTIs#
Both event lists and GTIs can be stacked into a larger one. An
EventList can also be created
from_stack, that is,
from a list of
from gammapy.data import EventList, GTI filename_1 = '$GAMMAPY_DATA/hess-dl3-dr1/data/hess_dl3_dr1_obs_id_023523.fits.gz' filename_2 = '$GAMMAPY_DATA/hess-dl3-dr1/data/hess_dl3_dr1_obs_id_023526.fits.gz' events_1 = EventList.read(filename_1) events_2 = EventList.read(filename_2) gti_1 = GTI.read(filename_1) gti_2 = GTI.read(filename_2) # stack in place, now the _1 object contains the information of both gti_1.stack(gti_2) events_1.stack(events_2) # or instead create a new event list from the other two combined_events = EventList.from_stack([events_1, events_2])
Writing event lists and GTIs to file#
To write the events or GTIs separately, one can just save the underlying
astropy.table.Table. However, it is usually best to save the events and
their associated GTIs together in the same FITS file. This can be done using
from gammapy.data import EventList, GTI filename = "$GAMMAPY_DATA/hess-dl3-dr1/data/hess_dl3_dr1_obs_id_023523.fits.gz" events = EventList.read(filename) gti = GTI.read(filename) # Save separately events.write("test_events.fits.gz", gti=None) gti.write("test_gti.fits.gz") # Save together events.write("test_events_with_GTI.fits.gz", gti=gti)
Spectral analysis of extended sources
Spectral analysis with energy-dependent directional cuts
Basic image exploration and fitting